Defining the Undefinable

Each time the issue of defining slack key is addressed by either a specific artist or some governing body of musical societies, I find the divisiveness of these definitions and categories on the one hand interesting, but also unfortunate on the other. I do see it as a basic human trait to try and classify things into specific groupings, it is something we have been doing since the advent of language after all. But when it comes to the arts I struggle to see the need or inherent necessity of doing this other than to create differentiation and separation among people all trying to achieve the same thing, a desire to express their inner most emotions and feelings into a tangible form.

This issue as it relates to slack key guitar playing recently came to mind while reading an essay by Makana titled “What Is Slack Key Guitar”. Now right off the bat I was a little skeptical as he is clearly stating that he will attempt to define something that to me as an art form is undefinable. Please read his essay yourself to get an idea about his view point directly from the source, but I will clarify some of the main points here.

What I really struggled with when reading his essay is that in defining slack key guitar he actually makes the definition more muddled and convoluted. In the process of defining what slack key is, he mentions so many exceptions to its components that I was left scratching my head as to how you can decisively define such a varied and ever evolving style of guitar playing. For example he says “The strings are tuned relative to each other so that when strummed open (without fretting) the final result is a CHORD. Doing so emancipates the fretting hand from having to hold chords- the guitar is already holding a chord for it (there are exceptions, of course)” (emphasis mine). Also “Often (again, there are exceptions) some of the strings are “slacked” or loosened, hence the name “kī hō’alu” (“to slacken or relax”) (emphasis again mine).

So according to this the strings can or cannot be tuned to result in an open chord and the strings can or cannot be loosened. Basically in one fell swoop he covered every possible guitar tuning known in the history of the instrument, amazing!

He then moves on to the technique aspect of playing slack key. The first technique he addresses is an alternating bass line using the thumb. He goes to state that “Uncle Ray Kane as well as Uncle Sonny Chillingworth were VERY STRICT about this.” (emphasis his in this case). But then he follows that up that “when you listen to Peter Moon (Sr), and the Gabby BAND (not solo) recordings, the two of them aren’t playing the bass a lot of the time.” (emphasis on BAND his). So again a major contradiction is being presented here.

According to Makana an alternating bass pattern is a fundamental aspect of slack key guitar playing, in fact it may be the most important as it is the first one he lists. Also it was emphasized by two leading masters he mentions Sonny Chillingworth and Ray Kane, but two other leading masters of slack key didn’t play in an alternating bass style? He does qualify this statements saying “that is because they had multiple instruments accompanying them..this is still often considered “slack key” as they used the tunings and the melodies of Hawaiian mele”. All in all these are confusing and contradictory statements.

So again, if I tune my guitar in a slack key manner (which according to his opening section on tuning can mean anything really) I am still playing slack key if I play the melodies of Hawaiian mele?

For the second component of slack key playing Makana says “Fingers of picking hand execute the primary melody of the piece. This usually occurs on the two or three highest pitched strings, but of course varies broadly”. Again, I use the highest two strings to execute the melody, but it “varies broadly”. Here he seems to be even more inclusive of all variations of how the melody is played on the instrument. It can be played with the bass strings then I assume, or any of the middle strings as well.

Then for the final third component he says “Both thumb and pointer finger occasionally impart what I call a faux rhythm, to infer the illusion of an accompanying background strumming rhythm guitar. This is more apparent in styles like Gabby’s solo work as well as that of Atta Isaacs. It is a technique that is very difficult to articulate/ teach, therefore it is rarely incorporated, but it is witnessed in the playing styles of the legends.” What does this even mean? There is some sort of fake rhythm that is generating as an illusion, but it can’t be taught or explained and it is rarely incorporated? That makes absolutely no sense. Something exists, I don’t know what it is, I can’t explain it  and it is rarely ever incorporated…but it’s there! My response would be, well then why are you even bothering writing an essay titled “what is slack key”.

Actually for me this component three seems to best summarize the entire definition of slack key. The whole thing is an illusion. Why even bother defining it. It just is. I do like the quote that Makana includes that Led Ka`apana uses to describe slack key, “slack key is the way we love each other, the way we share our Aloha with each other.” That to me is more tangible and more easily accessible than Makana’s definition full of contradictions and fuzzy logic. Because if I were to summarize Makana’s definition in my own words I would say “Slack key involves tuning your guitar in some manner that may or may not include slacking or loosening the strings and it may or may not result in an open chord. The guitar should be played with an alternating bass rhythm as it is an integral component as taught by the original masters, but often other master players ignore this component and don’t play with an alternating bass rhythm especially when playing in a group setting. The melody can be played on any string and there is great variations to what strings play the melody. And finally there is an unexplainable background fake illusionary rhythm that exists in the playing but it is very scarcely ever heard or seen and I can’t be taught.” How does that sound? Again, he is basically just explaining finger picked guitar, other than the esoteric “faux rhythm” part.

And I’m gonna stop there with referencing Makana’s essay as I can’t really accept much of anything of his conclusion based on the contradictions found in the entire body of his essay. What I can say is he goes on to explain in a whole host of lengthy justifications about what is and isn’t slack key and who can and can’t play it. You can read the essay for yourself to hear his explanations and justifications for these viewpoints.

But all kidding aside I think my points have strong validity and good reason to be brought up, and here’s why. A few years ago there was a big uproar in the Hawaiian music community over who was and wasn’t getting a very prestigious music award for best Hawaiian music album. The winners were consistently playing in what they called a slack key style and for the most part either resided outside of Hawaii or were produced by people not born or raised in Hawaii. The arguments and name calling that resulted ended with the particular awards committee dropping the category for best Hawaiian music album all together. We got so caught up in trying to define who we are that the broader music community said, you know what, since you guys can’t figure it our, we’ll just shut you out all together and just make your recordings available for the “American Roots music” category. Now this is fine by me, but I think has resulted in a vast void of self identification of what Hawaiian music is or does.

But for me as a musician living and working in Hawaii is a pretty apt summarization of where the industry as a whole is. So what am I trying to say? Well, that for Makana to try and define what slack key is he is doing himself and slack music as a whole a great disservice. As we say in Hawaii “just let the kids play”. Is there a deep and long history of a specific style of finger picked acoustic guitar playing in Hawaii? Yes or course! Does it matter what we call it, no I think not. It is a traditional folk style, that at this point is dead and has evolved past any specific labels or definitive components that can be easily establish, defined and categorized. Just get over it!

What I would like to see, and what I have tried to do in my capacity as a music teacher and educator is to do what I can to show and teach kids about his style of playing so it can hopefully live on in what ever capacity that it can. And good for Makana that he brings this up “we must encourage the keiki to learn Kī Hō’alu at a young age”. Now what he is doing to accomplish this I don’t know. I have not seen or be heard about what he is doing to actively engage and facilitate the learning of slack key guitar playing in the next generation. I really feel like he blowing some hot air here and just saying something that he thinks sounds and looks good. And in the context of his statement he was trying to justify his point that unless the very first guitar style you learned how to play was slack key you’re not playing real slack key. So if you were really breaking it down he is using the veil of the need to teach kids slack key as a way of proving his points about how he thinks slack key should be defined, pretty offensive if you ask me.

I have seen Makana in concert multiple times and if I were to make a general analysis of his demographic I would say they tend to be in the 50-65 year old category. I will say that judging by some recent promotional materials he has put together that it appears to be his desire to change this. You can see this particular you tube video that attempts to market his upcoming mainland shows to a new audience with the goal of changing the perception of what Hawaiian music is. In addition, his recent composition showing political support of Bernie Sanders may open up new audiences to his playing, I don’t know.

What I do know is that I would challenge Makana to really use his connections, resources and musical influence to get kids playing, learning and performing slack key music. If he values this deep cultural heritage and if he is so adamant about the fact that “Kī Hō’alu’s PURITY must be understood, valued, and considered, always.” He better get on it because it is disappearing and it is disappearing fast. I can see it and hear it in how the guitar is played by many of the next generation of guitar players in Hawaii, Makana included.

The Hawaiians and the Dreadnought Guitar


I came across some fascinating bits of information while reading the recent Martin Guitar online journal. Celebrating the 100 year anniversary of their iconic dreadnought guitar, they present a detailed history if its creation, from its inception through its alterations throughout the years. In this journal article lies some information relating to how Hawaiian guitar playing of the early 20th century helped shaped the design of the Martin Dreadnought guitar.

To read the entire article go to this link here.

Just to give some general background, the dreadnought guitar is a larger bodied acoustic guitar that was developed by Martin in 1916. Over time it has become a signature design for the Martin guitar company and played by countess well known musicians from Johnny Cash to Eric Clapton to Neil Young to Bob Dylan and many others. These larger bodied guitars became important as the guitar moved from small parlors and home concerts to auditoriums and theaters. But where did the idea for a larger bodied guitar originally come from?

The story begins at the 1916 Panama-Pacific International Exposition in San Francisco. One of the featured performance pavilions at the exposition had Hawaiian musicians who came playing `ukulele, taro patch fiddles (a double coursed `ukulele) as well as steel stringed guitars. What is still up for interpretation and debate is the origin of these guitars and the tuning in which they were played in. Stories vary as to whether it was the sailors from whaling ships or the Mexican cowboys who originally brought the guitar to Hawai`i. Nor do we know how the guitars were tuned or where these tunings originated form. What we do now have documentation of is that the guitars were played both Spanish style as well as in a new style placed horizontally on the lap with a steel bars used to glide across the strings. For more on my interpretation of the origins of slack key tunings you can link to my previous blog post here.

One of the performers at this exposition was Major Kealakai who went on to perform throughout America with his group called the Royale Hawaiian Sextette. In order to project a louder and richer sound he worked with Martin Guitar Company to produce a “OOO” body sized guitar that was proportionally larder with a larger 21 inch body and a four inch sound hole. This guitar dubbed the Style 17 was sent to Major Kealakai who was touring in Chicago in March of 1916. This new design led to a collaboration between Martin guitar builder John Deichman and Oliver Ditson of the Oliver Ditson Guitar Company which in turn produced the first Dreadnought guitars which were shipped in August of that year.

The release of the new dreadnought guitars were announced in Music Trader Review as such, “A new steel guitar called the ‘Dreadnought,’ and said to produce the biggest tone of any instrument of its kind, is now being used in the making of phonograph records. It is also said to be an excellent instrument for use in auditoriums and larger halls….”.

I found the involvement of a Hawaiian musician with the development of this iconic guitar to be a fascinating piece of important musical history. It also lends another layer to the mystery of the early years of guitar playing in Hawaii. How were these guitars originally tuned, where did the tunings come from? We do know the guitars were tuned lower or slacked, so the need for a larger bodied guitar make sense form that standpoint.

What is amazing is that not only was it the unique tunings and playing style of the Hawaiian but also the demand for Hawaiian music in concert halls and vaudeville shows that really pushed the need for a larger bodied acoustic guitar that eventually led to the dreadnought design which today is an iconic piece of American instrument design.



Who Are the Paniolo?

Paniolo Statue

Paniolo are the cowboys of Hawaii. Obviously there wouldn’t be cowboys without cattle, so it is important to start with the introduction of the first cattle in Hawaii when discussing the history of the paniolo. For a much more detailed and descriptive history of cattle in Hawaii it is mandatory that I mention the comprehensive history of the paniolo and Parker Ranch by Dr. Billy Bergin and his series of books “Loyal to the Land: The Legendary Parker Ranch” which I owe an immense of amount of debt to as a source for much of the following information.

Sea captain George Vancouver was the first person to bring cattle to Hawaii with a gift of California longhorns to Kamehameha I in 1793 (Loyal to the Land: The Legendary Parker Ranch 750-1950 pg. 21). Due to the afflictions of long sea travel and an inhabitable tropical environment, the first cattle (now called pipi, a Hawaiianization of beef) did not fare well in Hawaii (pg. 3, all references are to the above noted book so only page numbers follow in the parenthesis). None the less, due to a strict kapu placed on the killing of them by Kamehameha I and the availability of an abundance of farmed vegetables, they were able to survive and soon thrive (pg. 22). During the next twenty years they caused immeasurable damage to the native food supply through their trampling of gardens, family farms and native forests. Realizing the perilous infliction the cattle were having on valuable food crops Kamehameha I lifted the kapu and declared it permissible to shoot and kill cattle (pg. 4).

Even with the lifting of the kapu, cattle continued to grow to large numbers and Kamehameha I realized more intensive efforts were needed to control these large beasts. In 1815 ex-sailor and employee of Kamehameha I John Palmer Parker was hired to develop a plan to control the wild cattle. Parker was young, able bodied and more importantly owned a gun and was knowledgeable about its usage (pg. 28). This proved to be an overwhelming task as, according to Dr. Bergin, by 1850 there were over 8,000 domestic cattle and 12,000 wild cattle on the Big Island (pg. 4). Parker tried the best he could and created a homestead in North Kohala and used acreage around Waimea, given to him by Kamehameha after his marriage to Kamehameha’s great-grand daughter, as his working cattle ranch (pg. 4).

In the midst of this immense growth of the cattle population, an additional attempt was made to implement a plan to controlling their numbers. In 1832 Kamehameha III invited vaqueros from Mexico to come to Hawaii to train the native Hawaiians in the skills needed to be a successful cowboy (pg. 28). Their influence was enormous, as not only did they pass on their skills with the horse and lasso, but they brought the guitar and their music as well (for more information see my blog entry about the vaqueros and music). For further reading about the role of the Mexican cowboy you can consult Kyle Shinseki’s masters thesis “El Pueblo Mexicano de Hawaii.” Soon much of the Kohala area was centered around the cattle trade as most of the cattle preferred these higher elevation areas (pgs. 29-30).

The early cattle business centered mostly around butchering the cattle for meat that was cured with salt and sold to whalers and the Hawaiian navy for sea voyaging (pgs. 31-32). In this sense Waimea and the Kohala region began to establish itself as an area with a distinct cowboy culture as its society was centered around the ranch. I’d suggest if you are interested in cowboy culture and how it is developed you read Cowboys in America by R.W. Slatta. In 1847 Parker formally created the Parker Ranch with its crew of “animal caregivers, the fence men, drovers, herdsmen, milkers and grooms.” (pg. 4)

Praise and pride for the paniolo reached its apex in 1908 with the successful journey of three paniolo to Cheyenne Wyoming. With the encouragement of his father, Eben Low, along with Ikua Purdy and Archie Kaaua, took the long ferry and train ride to compete in the Frontier Days World Championship roping competition. It is here that the skills of the Hawaiian paniolo were firmly established with the outside world as Ikua Purdy won first place in steer roping with a new world record of 56 seconds. In addition Kaaua placed 3rd and Low 6th. Upon returning to Hawaii they were greeted as heroes and the legend of the “Hawaiian Roughrider” was born with songs of praise composed to commemorate this important event (see “Kila Kila Na Roughrider” and “Waiomina“.

During the 200 year history of cattle in Hawaii, ranching in Hawaii has extended to all the islands and has become an integral part of the communities in which they exist. These communities can be found in a variety of areas, from the mountainous regions the cattle frequent to the shores where the ports are located for their shipping. Fitting within the Hawaiian land concept of the ahupua`a, many of these communities exist within the same region of land extending from mountain to sea.

Regardless of their location these paniolo communities share a common bond and common traits. The ranch and the paniolo way of life has a way of extending beyond those who primarily work on the ranches to those that serve these communities. Everyone, from doctors, teachers, clerks, bankers, politicians and policemen are all paniolo by extension as their lives are so strongly influenced by the distinctive way of life of the paniolo. This is seen in the shared values of being hard working, living close to the land, having a respect for the family, and the deep love of slack key music and the folk songs from the days of before that survives.

It is in this environment in which I was raised, from the smaller family ranches of Honaunau in South Kona to the expansive Parker Ranch of Waimea in Kohala, and where I developed my love for the paniolo and the paniolo way of life. It was inevitable that this would find its way into my music and how I express myself musically. Blending the sounds of country with the musicality and feel of Hawaiian music I play what I call “Paniolo Music.”

Slack Key Tunings…Why???

I was doing some reading about open tunings and I started to realize that I’ve often felt the commonly held descriptions of the development of slack key guitar in Hawaii are lacking. The common story goes that the Mexican cowboys who came here to teach the Hawaiians how to rope cattle came with their guitars and upon returning to Mexico left them behind. Without any knowledge of European style “standard” tunings Hawaiians retuned the guitar to an open tuning that later became the basis for modern slack key. The element that is often ignored or unaddressed is why? Why would Hawaiians choose to tune their guitars to an open tuning instead of learning to play the guitars how the Mexicans had left them?

This is a question that the late ethnomusicologist Bob Brozman spent a lifetime trying to answer. Although he went about this is an often ego driven and at times elitist way, it is a very important question to ask. He had a very clear opinion on this and it is expressed in the following quote he made during his correspondence with the author of the book The Cambridge Companion to the Guitar, “The guitar accompanied colonists around the world, and the colonized people often retuned to open tunings, because the European standard tuning lacks obvious logical visual and audio cues. Open tunings provide a much clearer picture of the fingerboard, enabling self-teaching. Furthermore, the diatonic European system of music is, in fact, the odd man out in the world of musical cultures, the rest of the world preferring the more mathematically simple and therefore natural-sounding modal approach.”

While this appears to be logical and hold true to an extent there are a couple major problems with this statement as it pertains to the Hawaiian. The first thing I have a problem with is the term “mathematically simple.” This is inline with many of Bob’s sentiments that are often (much to his desired self-convincing of the opposite) derogatory of native cultures. I do not think the Hawaiian, or any colonized culture for that matter, prefers something “more mathematically” simple. I am more than convinced that the Polynesian voyaging culture that formed the basis of the Hawaiian intellect is far from mathematically simple. In addition there is no evidence or support that an open tuning presents something that is more mathematically simple. The assumption that the European “standard” tuning of the guitar is more complex is in direct conflict with his statement that it is illogical. I see someone fighting their own internal battle of complexity versus logic and whether or not they are interrelated.

And secondly, there is scant evidence at the moment that would point to the guitar as arriving here as the result of colonialism. If we consider the British, French and Russian explorers that first came to Hawaii between the 1770s and the 1810s, none of them travelled with guitars. In addition the first missionaries who arrived from the eastern United States shortly thereafter didn’t bring guitars with them either. So outside of the Mexican cowboys, did any other outside (or colonizing) culture bring the guitar to Hawaii?

This brings up a larger question, who were the colonizers of Hawaii? Upon a closer examination of the history of Hawaii one could argue that colonization didn’t happen until the illegal overthrow and dismantling of the Hawaiian Kingdom by the American government and their fellow sugar industry tycoons. This didn’t occur until the 1890s and there is extensive evidence that a strong guitar culture already existed in Hawaii by then.

But I don’t want to get to caught up in semantics. I do want to focus on the larger ethnomusicological question of where did the slack key tuning come from. While Bob Brozman may not have been the only voice in the question of the origin of open tunings in colonized cultures he certainly was the loudest. And his viewpoint centered around the idea of the “simpleton native” detuning the complex standard tuning of the European to form their open tuning styles. The irony here is that he considered himself a cultured man who believed he lived on par with the native peoples he exploited for his own musical prestige. Harsh words for sure, but not untrue if you dissect his actions. And, one listen to him singing Hawaiian music is proof enough he wasn’t the purveyor of native musics that he thought he was.

So really this isn’t just a question of whether colonization created an opportunity for the development of open tunings in Hawaii, it is a question of the need. By the 1840s when the Mexican cowboys were brought here and eventually departed, the guitars they left behind were unplayable to the Hawaiian. Anyone who picks up a standard tuned guitar and strums it will tell you that. This is where the illogicalness of the “standard tuning” comes to life. The practical and efficient Hawaiian would be the one who would decide to retune the strings to find something that sounded pleasant. Not the oppressed colonized Hawaiian of simple mathematical conceptions.

And that is all I really wanted to address in this blog post. The commonly held narrative of the development of slack key in Hawaii ignores the analysis of the how colonized peoples created open tunings. And the only accepted opinion of how these tunings were created comes from an ego driven, conflicted, contrarian ethnomusicologist who is no longer around. Where is he? What happened to “the voice” of the native music cultures? It is not my job to air others dirty laundry. Google Bob Brozman suicide and find out for yourself. Let me tell you now the truth is possibly stranger and more disturbing than you are prepared to see.

The World Cup That Is Hawaiian Music Part 3: Los Vaqueros



Shortly after the establishment of the Christian religion in Hawai`i the next major influence on Hawaiian music came in the 1840s in the form of Mexican vaqueros who came here to teach the Hawaiian people the basics of how to care for and manage the cattle that had grown to large numbers since their introduction in the 1780s. These cowboys not only brought their musical culture in the form of song structure, melody and lyrical themes, but in their instruments as well.

A popular form of music in Mexico during the early 19th century was Ranchero music. Having recently experienced a political revolution and upheaval, the people of Mexico were enjoying the first fruits of its independence. The people of Mexico developed and grasped onto Ranchera music as a way of expressing a national pride and identity. This was especially true in the rural areas of the country where there was a strong backlash against the aristocracies that had previously ruled.

It is pretty evident to hear the influence of the Ranchera music sung and played by the Mexican cowboys on early Hawaiian music. Ranchera music is identifiable by its use of a 3/4 waltz time, but the 2/4 and 4/4 time signatures are also used. The songs are most commonly in a major key with a short instrumental introduction to start off the song. Verses are sung and instrumental sections are inserted between verses. The song topics are usually centered around love and nature. They are most commonly sung accompanied with just the guitar. Sounds like I am describing Hawaiian music!

It is undeniable that there was a huge influence on Hawaiian music from the Mexican cowboys and their Ranchera music. While the missionaries had introduced the concepts of melody, harmony and general song structure, it was really in the rural hills of Kohala and throughout the Big Island that Hawaiian music as we know it began to take shape. A specific structure was now in place, musical introduction, verse, musical interlude, tag. The tempos were now accessible, the 3/4 and 4/4 signatures and the feel of the slow romantic love song became the norm. Take a listen to a short sample from the Smithsonian Institute Folklore website of the song “Los Carinosa (Be Kind To Me)” to hear the similarities.

Obviously I would not be telling the story if I failed to mention the most significant contributions from the Mexican cowboys: the guitar. The guitar was the most important part of ranchero music. It set the rhythm and played the melody line, often simultaneously, two distinctive features of what has come to be known as slack key guitar. It is well documented that the first Mexican cowboys to come here brought their guitars with them and showed the Hawaiians how to play. Using the style familiar to the Mexican cowboys as inspiration, the Hawaiians mimicked and added to their own flavor to their guitar playing. What is not totally clear is how the tunings were adapted and or changed. We do know that traditionally there are a number of tunings that were used in Mexican ranchera music. Most were based on the standard Spanish tuning brought to Mexico by the first Spanish to come to the new world. Over time these were changed slightly, but were still very close to the standard tuning. I do believe there was a tuning structure that was common to the Mexican cowboys that was slightly altered by the Hawaiian once they had guitars in their hands. But because documentation doesn’t exist for this, it is purely speculation has to how or why the tuning was changed.

What is most important here is that it was the Vaqueros, or Mexican cowboys that brought guitars here, introduced a specific structure and style of singing and playing that had a big effect on how Hawaiians began playing and composing music. Most specifically in the realm of the rhythms, structure and melodies. One composition that clearly shows this is “Adios Ke Aloha” Here its very title hints at the influence from Mexico. The song is a song of love lost set to a 3/4 time with a melody that is very clearly Mexican in origin. Another tune that shows this influence is “Waialae” 

While the Ranchera music had the most influence on how the Hawaiian people began to play music, we must also look back to the Jalisco Son has having an important role as well. Son music is unique from Ranchera music in that it is played in ensembles and utilizes dance to accompany the singing. As music in Hawaii moved from a solo performance on the guitar to ensemble playing accompanied by a dance with multiple guitars and other stringed instruments such as the violin and ukulele, it is important that we look at the possibility that son music had an influence on this presentation of music in Hawaii.

One final thing to note is the how these developments in Hawaiian music occurred in the rural areas where cattle ranching was common. My last post discussed the role of the church and New England missionaries on Hawaiian music. While these influences did reach some rural areas, it was mostly centered in Honolulu and the urban centers. The more rural parts of Hawaii were till open to outside influences and they mostly came from the vaqueros from Mexico.  This can be seen in the thematics of the songs that were centered around stories of love and love lost rather than themes centered around church faith and Biblical teachings.

At this point the fundamental structure and style of music in Hawaii has been established. By the 1860s a distinct identity of Hawaiian music has been created. Borrowing elements from New England church singing including melody and harmony and incorporating the Spanish guitar from Ranchera music as the rhythmic template with additional melodic flourishes from the guitar with lyrics about love and romance, modern Hawaiian music was born. Much of this happened right in the Kohala district on the Big Island as it had the unique combination of a strong church influence and the Mexican cowboys. From here it spread to the outside areas where it was modified and adapted by the Hawaiian people throughout the islands. In turn the music became to HO`ANALU….go beyond known boundaries. It is during these exciting times that the music morphs and changes with each new influence from the outside. The Hawaiian people were amazingly open and free with how they would take music from the outside and make it their own.

Next we will look at Portuguese Folk Music from the Madeira Islands and then down the road discuss the influences of European Royal Music, American Ragtime and Jazz, American Big Band Music, American Country and Folk Music and Caribbean Reggae Music as I explore the theme of the influence of world music on modern Hawaiian music during our World Cup season.